Ara, Zauberin der Sterne (German Edition)
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Latest news. Most likely not that, what singing before, When even a room I have not at this point Without strange witnesses to read at least a verse. The allusion will be much closer to perception and recognition if we give the biblical text to the references, but this will become clearer not in the Ukrainian translation of the biblical text, but if we quote the original Gospel in Greek Luke It will help us to explore the Greek connotation of values, since some of the biblical allusions that are implicitly declared could have very deep meaning for explaining the Expressionist category of "expression.
Thus, we see that implicitly declared Christological allusions are used as a means of expression in Expressionist texts. This example from Ukrainian poetry of changes of thesis in antithesis, and antithesis in thesis, serves as the means of expression of the emotional stress of the lyrical hero.
The role of biblical allusions in German-language poetry we will discuss in the examples of poetic texts by Stefan Zweig and Georg Heym At first glance, biblical allusions are not detected in the text, although the phrases "melting and weightless," "shining heavenly vision," "flame child," "paternal waves," "boundless being" could refer to the story of Christ's Ascension.
Literary images from the poem Middle of Winter [Mitte des Winters] by Georg Heym give more information for the interpretation of biblical elements, especially the last two lines of the stanza:. Trackless is every life now. And a muddle is every path. And none can say where that ends, And him that seeks it, if he any yet finds He sees it mute and trembling emptied-out hands. The content of the poetry echoes the biblical text, but not the translated text; the original text presents images more transparently. Und es geschah, als er sie segnete, schied er von ihnen und fuhr auf gen Himmel.
Similar examples allow us to observe the way biblical allusions can have.
The duality of expression is also imposed on the active attempt of the eternal human "I" to draw closer to the absolute re-creation of things, states, emotions, or inner feelings: the expression of the individual meaning of "thing" or "thing-in-itself. Therefore, double expression can be understood as an expression of the inner world implanted in an immanent continuum that goes on into transcendence by means of using sacred language, i.
Thus, biblical allusions are sacred or truly existential ingredients of vivid Expressionist expression and are a direct connecting process between the transsubjective "I" "I" that is in the process of moving, i.
Hence, the dual understanding of the "expression" of "I" is embedded in the concept of "double expression. This "time-I," or as German theorists call it, "Uhr-Ich," appeals to the active principle of life, making the motion of the inner life a way of active "expression.
Thus, we can observe the various uses of biblical allusions in the works of Osmachka and Zweig. For example, some apocalyptic motifs may be observed in the following poetic text:. A presentiment of the last times resonates with longing for the lost, which could be associated with the lost Eden, the memory of which is present on a subconscious level. Thus, the apocalyptic motif correlates with the beginning and the end, with Alpha and Omega, where Alpha is the beginning of the Old Testament narrative:. These already lay down the division of reality that accompanies the existence of the individual in the immanent dimension earth and the desire to reach the transcendent dimension heaven.
And Omega is an apocalyptic end that elicits fear; here we can observe hamartiological motifs the problem of the Fall, sin.nonshasopufer.ml
Guide Ara, Zauberin der Sterne (German Edition)
Transcendent reality is the source of the rise of the inner condition associated with "DyQVh" hashamayim — heavens and the immanent level relates to haaretz — earth , which accompanies the presence. Thus, the biblical motifs presented demonstrate the interaction of the immanent category "Ich" "I" with "Uhr-Ich" "Time-I" , which is submerged in a timeless transcendence where past, present, and future are one dimension. In this way, the idea of not entering into the dimension of timeless realization produces fear, making the temporal "I" being unrecognized at the time.
Klaus Shtromeyer, in his book on Expressionism, Aesthetics of Crisis, refers to aesthetic and philosophical basics in understanding the Expressionist's fear, saying that the inner skepticism of "I" arises from dissatisfaction with the personal level of spiritual inner-being.
The level of spiritual inner-being leads the lyrical hero to search for a transcendental dimension as a way of existence through sacredness and unconscious memory of the lost eternity and the lost Eden. It becomes a higher internal conscious choice to return to the lost, at least by aspirations which are established by active personal expression. The Expressionist's category of "movement" as the dynamics of the "spiritual" existence of man. The general European character of Expressionism opens new prospects for its positioning through the declaration of signs of disintegration that are full of fear, not for the world, but for its conscience.
We may observe the same thing in the poetry of T. Osmachka and F. Werfel — As an example we quote an excerpt from Osmachka's poem from the collection "Iz pid swi-tu" 'From under the World]:. Lang, , p.
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For Osmachka, the center of expression is the suffering God-man, Christ, whose rivers of blood bring purification for the world and righteousness for humanity; but, according to the New Testament references, it happens only through suffering. In the original text of the New Testament, the image of "suffering" is emphasized and reinforced by the word "Golgotha," while in Ukrainian it loses its intensity. In the original language, it adds the additional connotation of the expression of "suffering," endured for the whole world.
As mentioned by Zborowska in regard to the poetry of Osmachka, which can be attributed to the poetry of Werfel as well, the symbol of suffering and the "bloody mark as brand," is an Expressionist form, but along with this appears a correlation to an expression of the clash of the ages represented by sacrificial suffering:.
Bieldenschaft, , p. Thus, Expressionist art focuses on the human existential condition of confusion, horror, and the destruction of clear life meanings and guidelines, and centers on all forms of internal expression. In particular, Adorno formulates expression as confusion which declares itself in opposition to what is visibly obvious. Arising from this, the disharmony of meaning appeals to visible "expression": the features of expression, firmly imprinted in works of art, represent the demarcation lines that separate them from what is obvious. Before we analyze and compare apocalyptic and eschatological motifs in Ukrainian and German-Austrian Expressionist poetry, we should differentiate the aforementioned two concepts since the meaning of "apocalyptic" and "eschatological," besides their synonymous use, also have a fundamental distinction.
As is well known, eschatology deals with issues relating to the finality of the existing world as a whole, combining together the whole process of the beginning and end of the last days with its influence on the universe as a whole, which actually includes both negative and positive aspects of the process. The use of the concept of apocalypse in theology points to the events concerning the "Last Judgement" on the people and the land, including Armageddon as well.
Of course, from this point of view, the use of apocalyptic motifs is more characteristic for Expressionist poetry, since its main prerogative is the category of "expression," which is often caused by the withdrawal of expression-rich dimensions of fear. After all, poetry only shows the aesthetic images subjugated to the aesthetic visibility of the expression.
So, in this sense, an aesthetic appearance of "expression" of internal intentions of identity and its higher effect in the form of poetic images in the lyrics are just an approximation of the truth. In Expressionism, the reaction of the individual to the uncertainty of the image of truth is presented by fear in the form of apocalyptic and eschatological motifs.
The loss of validity in the dimension of existence is perceived by Expressionism as finiteness of life; therefore, the category of "expression" in Expressionism becomes a means of getting closer to the truth, of grasping it even in an artistic, veiled form. Poetic works, claiming transcendence in relation to being in a higher sphere, also emphasize their inherent semantic point of instability precariousness , perishability, which appears as the result of the powerlessness and uselessness of "expression" in the empirical world.
Apocalyptic and eschatological motifs are present in Expressionism in Ukrainian poetry. The distinction between the German, Austrian, and Ukrainian versions of the discussion presented above is that almost every text shows its own time-space division, which demonstrates itself according to its own cultural, historical, and geographical features. And only then it turns to the global unifying sense of being, to the transcendent being. As an example, we compare a few passages of the of German and Ukrainian poetry with the previously quoted poetic lines that presents the general characteristics of apocalyptic and eschatological motifs.
We specifically focus on apocalyptic evangelical paraphrases in the poem "Umbra vitae" by George Heym:. The people stand forward in the streets They stare at the great signs in the heavens Where comets with their fiery trails Creep threateningly about the serrated towers. Ba-zhan "Sliptsti," "Hoffmanova Nich" , in poems by P. Tychyna and in some works of M. Khvylovy "Orudni, vashe sviato," "Pislia hromovutsi,". Moreover more apocalyptic images are present in the poetry of T. Osmachka "Iz pid swity," "Poet," and also in the poems "Prot-shannia," "Koly ia jihav u prostir," "Synia mla," "Sobaka," "Tsarytsia," "Vdovytsia," "Sontse shodyt i krychat v haju soroky," "Zahrava," "Do lemkiv'skoho boru," "Marevo Eshilovoho oral,".
Trakle's poetry from the collections Gedichte, Galizien, Die Dichtungen, specific attention is given in critical works by T. Since the poetry of G. Heym is translated from the German, we give a biblical quotation in German translation as well: "Die Feigen aber und Unglaubigen und Frevler und Morder und Unzuchtigen und Zauberer und Gotzendiener und alle Lugner, deren Teil wird in dem Pfuhl sein, der mit Feuer und Schwefel brennt; das ist der zweite Tod" Revelation And for the purpose of making a comparison with German language Expressionistic texts, in which a division of autochthonous time-space dimensions with astral symbols is also present, we quote an example of a poetic variant of a Ukrainian-language interpretation of apocalyptic motifs in Expressionist poetry and compare the quotes with a passage from the poem "To Faint Flame of Age Without End":.
The first lines of the first stanza, "flame of age, without end" bring us to the time of apocalyptic events, while the metaphors "iron muscles" and "barrel of red fires" indicate the presence of attributes of the Last Judgment and punishment: "And the third angel sounded, and fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters.
And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood; and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter" Revelation , KJV. For the purpose of making an extensive analogy of attributes of the astral-imaginary description, we quote another piece of poetry of Khvyliovyj, Fragments:. To Mars, to Mars! In burlap clouds That comes from jaws of chimney, With hammers knocking sounds Our crowd flew — Up.
And even world, as all the planets — As star with eye in depth And we In another poetic passage we see other attributes of "Apocalypse" as well, that correlate to the following New Testament text: "And I beheld, and heard an eagle, flying through the midst of heaven, saying with a loud voice, Woe, woe, woe to the inhabiters of the earth by reason of the other voices of the trumpet of the three angels, which are yet to sound" Revelation , KJV. We see a similar variation of the apocalyptic astral symbols in another poem of G.
Hvyliovyi, "Mlity v polumjii vik, bez kintsiia," in M.
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Hvyliovyi Tvory: Vpiatiokh tomah, ed. Kostiuk, Vol. Symonenka, , p. Hvyliovyi, "Uryvky," in M.