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Kennedy 's recklessness and incompetence; these claims are generally believed. Kennedy and his officials are regarded as butchers and war criminals and the only senior surviving member of JFK's inner circle, McGeorge Bundy , is imprisoned in Fort Leavenworth. In contrast, U.
During the course of the novel Landry gradually discovers that it was Kennedy who sought to prevent the crisis over Cuba from escalating into war, and that last-minute attempts to achieve a deal with Nikita Khrushchev to end the crisis were deliberately sabotaged by LeMay and other generals. The second plotline concerns British-U.
Landry and a British journalist, Sandy Price, discover that elements within the British government and security services are plotting a military takeover or anschluss of the U.
This plan is underway near the end of the novel, and is called off at the last minute. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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He hoped this would raise his status among Latin American leaders. But Khrushchev insisted on secrecy; he believed that once the missiles were in place, the United States could not act without the possibility of provoking war. So in secrecy the Soviets planned to install forty missile launchers in Cuba. Each missile, armed with a nuclear warhead, had an explosive power equal to 1 million tons , metric tons of TNT.
The MRBMs had a. The other sixteen missile launchers would be long-range, capable of sending missiles northward to Canada and south into Latin America. Calculations showed that the only major U. In July , Soviet ships sailed toward Cuba with their cargo of missile equipment. Also headed for Cuba was the latest Soviet military equipment plus over forty thousand Soviet troops.
Soviet fighter planes known as MiG's, some bombers to be assembled in Cuba, and surface-to-air missiles SAMs to protect the nuclear missile sites all moved across the Atlantic Ocean to Cuba.police-risk-management.com/order/keyboard/motin-programma-per-spiare.php
Game theory and the Cuban missile crisis
The size of the undertaking was enormous. All the while, the Soviet government consistently assured the United States that the arms buildup in Cuba was purely defensive in nature—that the Soviet Union had no need to station missiles outside its own territory. These assurances would soon prove to be lies. The NSA was America's prime intelligence organization that listened to and analyzed foreign communications.
Through intercepted messages, the NSA determined that Cuba was significantly building up its weapons, with the Soviet Union's help. Additionally, the NSA heard Spanish being spoken on a surveillance tape from Czechoslovakia, an Eastern European nation under Soviet control; it turned out that Cuban fighter pilots were being trained in Czechoslovakia by the Soviet military.
The Week The World Stood Still: Inside The Secret Cuban Missile Crisis
The NSA also intercepted messages that indicated that Soviet ships headed for Havana, Cuba, had no cargo listed—a quiet method of concealing the equipment they carried. They also spotted Cubans training on Russian military equipment. Nevertheless, all these systems could be categorized as defensive systems, and Soviet authorities continued to insist that everything they provided to Cuba was purely defensive.
U-2 reconnaissance aircraft, secret planes that gathered information, flew at high altitudes over Cuba, and the pictures they brought back did not indicate any offensive weapons sites in Cuba. Then on October 14, , a U-2 mission returned with chilling photographs. The photographs arrived on the desk of the president's national security advisor, McGeorge Bundy — , on the evening of October The MRBM installation appeared almost complete; the longer-range equipment looked as if it would not be ready until the end of the year.
Knowing that sleep would be hard to come by for a while, a grim Bundy decided to let the president sleep that night. Kennedy immediately called together a small group of senior cabinet members, security officials, and military leaders to assess the situation and advise him. The group became known as Ex-Comm, short for Executive Committee of the National Security Council ; it stayed almost continuously in session for the next two weeks. The National Security Council is part of the executive branch of the U.
The council advises the president on matters of foreign policy and defense. With an eye cast toward historical documentation, Kennedy secretly had all the brainstorming discussions of Ex-Comm tape-recorded. The following days brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war. When the Ex-Comm tapes became available in the s at the close of the Cold War, they confirmed that there were several moments when one more command or one slight move on either country's part could have unleashed a nuclear holocaust. On October 16, 17, and 18 Ex-Comm discussions included a variety of proposals, from doing nothing, at least not immediately, to staging an invasion of Cuba.
Members of the committee divided into two camps: hawks and doves. Hawks favored immediate military strikes to take out the missiles and Castro's communist government. Doves, fearing massive casualties, favored a strategy of diplomacy and less aggressive tactics.
eyeball to eyeball an alternate cuban missile crisis series book 1 Manual
At the outset, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy — , the president's brother, joined the Joint Chiefs of Staff in supporting an invasion or a surprise air strike. However, after further discussions, he decided an air strike was not in the best interests of the United States. In fact, many Ex-Comm members changed their minds—supporting one position, then another—as ideas were discussed. All Ex-Comm members agreed from the start on one objective: The missiles must be removed from Cuba one way or another.
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President Kennedy and Ex-Comm could not permit this armed Soviet intrusion into the Americas, within. If the United States did not respond, the committee reasoned, Khrushchev would push for more communist influence in the region; this would undermine U. Kennedy's political future would be in doubt, and fear of eventually being surrounded by Soviet-controlled communist states would increase.
On Thursday, October 18, intelligence reports given to Ex-Comm indicated that medium-range missiles were almost ready, capable of being launched from Cuba in about eighteen hours. Kennedy did not reveal his proof of the missiles. Gromyko still insisted that Soviet military assistance for Cuba was only defensive.
Late that night, Ex-Comm decided against immediate invasion of Cuba and settled tentatively on a more cautious plan—a naval blockade around Cuba that would prevent any additional Soviet ships and their military cargo from reaching Cuba. President Kennedy did not want to announce the grave situation to the American public until a plan of action was decided upon, so he continued his planned schedule of campaign appearances as if nothing was amiss the purpose of these appearances was to support various candidates for the upcoming November midterm elections.
As plans favoring the blockade firmed up, he cancelled the rest of his campaign appearances. Kennedy thought the blockade most likely would not trigger immediate war. While demonstrating that the United States would not tolerate the missiles, the U.
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Because blockades were against international law , the term "quarantine" was used instead. Once the decision for a quarantine was made, Kennedy requested that the television networks clear out a prime-time evening slot on Monday, October 22, for an urgent address to the nation. Anatoly Dobrynin — , the Soviet ambassador to the United States, who knew nothing of the offensive missiles, was handed the text of Kennedy's speech shortly before airtime.
Dumbfounded, he quietly went back and sat in his embassy office, attempting to gather himself before relaying Kennedy's message to Moscow's leaders. Addressing the American people, President Kennedy explained the situation fully.